Friday, May 22, 2020

The Potential Effects Of Stress And Trauma - 1272 Words

THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF STRESS AND TRAUMA IN PILOT PERFORMANCE Stress has potential to influence the performance of an individual. The degree of stress correlates with the degree of arousal in a high pressure situation, which can eustress or impair an individual’s performance (Pignata, 2016). The flight deck of an aircraft is a complex operating environment with demand for high performance between automated and human interfaces. Exposure to these high levels of external and internal occupational (Blouin, 2014) stressors has underlying effect on the operational performance of professional pilots both in the immediate and prolonged circumstances. Stress and trauma education for especially training pilots is important to highlight the potential effects of physical, physiological and psychological stressors to manage pressure and optimise pilot performance of aviation safety. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), (2012) defines stress â€Å"as the sum of biological responses to any adverse interplay of physical, mental, emotional, internal or external stimuli which potentially disrupts the natural balance of the body.† There are three main components of stress; stress stimuli, processing systems and stress response (Pignata, 2016). Stress consists of two categories: acute and chronic (FAA, 2012). Acute stress is the primitive flight or fight response to immediately perceived threats. In response to the apparent stressor, the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS), adrenaline andShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Trauma On Clients And Mental Health Counselors1467 Words   |  6 PagesThe Effects of Trauma on Clients and Mental Health Counselors Cedric Hynson Walden University The Effects of Trauma on Clients and Mental Health Counselors This paper will define The Effects of Trauma and Crisis on Clients and Mental Health Counselors and give a brief overview on how these Natural and man-made disasters, crises, and other trauma-causing events have become a focus of the clinical mental health counseling profession. Due to the extreme trauma that childrenRead MoreSocial Workers And Mental Health Providers1477 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Social workers and mental health providers work in a field where trauma is prevalent. This means that people who work in these types of fields are more likely to experience what is called â€Å"secondary traumatization†, â€Å"vicarious traumatization† or â€Å"compassion fatigue†. These terms all essentially describe the negative impact of bonding with a trauma survivor and exposure to the survivor’s traumatic encounters (McCann Pearlman 1990). These terms are different than and should not beRead MoreTrauma Paper1033 Words   |  5 Pages* Select two examples of trauma-causing events to use for this assignment: * one man-made or natural disaster 9/11/01 * one more personal trauma-causing crisis Rape * Explain the potential effects these events may have on the survivors and the first responders. * Explain how the counselor’s role may differ in treating a survivor of each of the traumas you selected and how they may differ in treating a first responder to each of the traumas. * Explain how a mentalRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay752 Words   |  4 Pagesthe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its effects on the populations in society - primarily concerning those involved in conflict - specifically the male soldiers and civilians in these areas of conflict. The three studies talked about in this paper specifically focus on these points: 1) Identification of traumatic stress symptoms under conflict and the numerous variations between individuals which develop said symptoms. 2) The observation of variations/levels of trauma experienced with previousRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1602 Words   |  7 Pages Sarah Richards Post Traumatic Stress Disorder March 9, 2015 SW 612 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that may develop after an exposure to a terrifying event in which physical harm occurred or was threatened. Usually, the anxiety may be brought on by an â€Å"exposure to an actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violence â€Å"(American Psychiatric Association, 2013, pg. 271). Only recently have children and youth been deemed to have experiencedRead MoreA Research Study On Child Development922 Words   |  4 PagesHowever, it remains significant, establishing a platform for future research concerning the impact of stress and trauma on human development. The 1994 study discovered a relationship between the experience of traumatic events as a child and poor physical/mental health as an adult. At the time the article was published, little to no research had been conducted concerning the effects of stress hormones on the developing mind. Despite this, the authors were able to clearly define the factor(s ) thatRead MoreThe Curent Understanding of the Neurobiology of Memory Reconsolidation and Its Implications for Psychology1863 Words   |  7 Pagesreconsolidation and its implications for psychology. This paper will specifically focus on the molecular mechanisms of reconsolidation and research relating to fear memories and using propranolol and D-cycloserine as a treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Memory consolidation is the process by which memories are stabilised after being acquired. Consolidation studies have traditionally focused on the hippocampus and systems consolidation, where short term memories become long term memoriesRead MoreThe Philosophical Underpinnings Of Trauma Informed Care1529 Words   |  7 PagesWhile there is agreement that trauma informed care generally refers to a philosophical stance integrating awareness and understanding of trauma and its ongoing impact on patients’ health and lives, there is not yet consensus on a definition or clari ty on how the model can be applied in a variety of settings. The philosophical underpinnings of trauma informed care trace to the feminist movements of the 1970s (Burgess Holstrom, 1974), and the emergence of child-advocacy centers and awareness andRead More Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Treatment Essay1416 Words   |  6 PagesIn 1980, the term Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) first came into existence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III). Only in 1987 did the DSM series make reference to traumatized children. The first major studies of the effects of large traumas on children were Blochs 1956 study of the effect of a tornado in Mississippi, Laceys 1972 study of the effects of an avalanche on a Welsh school, Newmans 1976 work on the Buffalo Creek disaster and TerrsRead MoreChildhood Abuse Or Neglect And Genetically Such As Relative With Mental Health Problems1727 Words   |  7 Pageschildhood abuse or neglect a nd genetically such as relative with mental health problems. â€Å"Demographics and trauma history with age, gender, educational level, employment status, marital status, history of psychological intervention counselling, current use of psychotropic medication, type of trauma, time since the trauma and following traumatic event† (Karatzias et. al, 2013, p. 503). Not all trauma survivors will develop permanent PTSD disorders and some may be later on will be affected. The risk factors:

Saturday, May 9, 2020

The Membrane Potential Between Outside And The Inside Cell...

Option 2: The resting membrane potential is the difference between the outside and the inside cell membrane polarity. It is called a resting potential because it occurs when a membrane is not being stimulated or conducting impulses (Ritchison n.d.). This polarity can be measured and it is about -70mv. In the resting membrane potential, outside the cell has a more positive polarity and inside the cell has more negative polarity. There are more Na+ and Cl- on the outside and larger negative proteins (because they cannot go through the tiny pores to outside) and more K+ inside the cell (Ceballos, 2016). Diffusion, electrostatic pressure, and sodium-potassium pump are the main forces affecting the resting membrane potential. Diffusion and electrostatic pressure work against the resting membrane potential and sodium-potassium pump help the resting potential. Diffusion occurs if there is a concentration gradient present and the molecules move from the higher concentration to the lower concentration. Electrostatic pressure work as simple as a magnetic effect, which is characterized by the opposite attraction of. Sodium-Potassium pump is an active mechanism and need energy (by food etc.) to work. In this case, 3 Na+ ions are excluded to the outside of the cell and 2 K+ ions brought into to the cell. This energy supply occurs through food we eat and they break ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) to ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate). In action potential, only axon depolarization occurs, not toShow MoreRelatedaction potential1527 Words   |  7 Pagesformation of an action potential can be divided into five steps. (1) A stimulus from a sensory cell or another neuron causes the target cell to depolarize toward the threshold potential. (2) If the threshold of excitation is reached, all Na+ channels open and the membrane depolarizes. (3) At the peak action potential, K+ channels open and K+ begins to leave the cell. At the same time, Na+ channels close. (4) The membrane becomes hyperpolarized as K+ ions continue to leave the cell. The hyperpolarizedRead MoreAnatomy and Physiology Essay860 Words   |  4 Pagescellular fluid to replenish oxygen that is being used by the cells; the kidneys maintain constant ion concentrations and the gastrointestinal system provides nutrients. Not all substances absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract can be used in their absorbed form by the cells. The liver changes the chemical compositions of many of these substances to more useable forms and other tissues of the body – fat cells, gastrointestinal mucosa, kidneys, and endocrine glands - helpRead MoreThe Nervous System And Peripheral Nervous Systems958 Words   |  4 Pageshas three general functions: a sensory function, an interpretative function and a motor function. Sensory nerves gather information from inside the body and the outside environment. The nerves then carry the information to central nervous system (CNS). Nervous tissue consists of two main types of cells: neurons and neuroglia. Neurons also so known as nerve cells ) transmit nerve impulses that move information around the body. Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System are Identified asRead MoreElectrical Functions Of Plant And Animal Cells1752 Words   |  8 Pagesin plant and animal cells, anion channels play a key role in various physiological functions. This include cell osmoregulation, cell signalling, plant nutrition and compartmentalization of metabolites and metal tolerance (reference). In plants, anion channels are reported to be foun d in plasma membrane, tonoplast, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Plasma membrane channels have been the best characterized till date compared to those located in other membranes. How do they workRead MorePhysioex 9.0 Exercise 32112 Words   |  9 PagesActivity 1 Pre-Lab Quiz K+ inside a cell = 150 mM; K+ outside a cell = 5 mM Na+ inside a cell = 5 mM; Na+ outside a cell = 150 mM Stop amp; Think question What is the polarity of the resting membrane potential (voltage)? Negative What does it mean that the voltage just inside the membrane is negative? B Membrane of most cells contains K+ leak channels†¦..b What will happen to the resting membrane potential if the extracellular K+ concentration is increase? Less negative What happensRead MoreDetail the Components of a Synapse and Describe the Sequence of Events at a Synapse When Information Is Transmitted.1861 Words   |  8 Pagesestimated the average adult has between 100 and 500 trillion synapses.(Wikipedia contributors (2006). When looking at the brain in this context, you can appreciate the sheer complexity of it and that looking at the functioning of a single synapse is a mammoth achievement of science. In order to look at synapses in detail, it is necessary to understand the structure and components of the cell and those it attaches to.Read MoreElectrical Activities in the Human Body3411 Words   |  14 PagesIntroduction Biopotential signals are electrical activities of the human body systems which are measured by potential fluctuations between points in living cells, tissues and organisms .In medicine field, certain biopotential signals are important as they are considering diagnosis and patient monitoring. These signals represent the activity of particular organs such as the heart, brain, muscles and many more. With the help of specialised electrodes, biopotential signals transduce low-noise andRead MoreBiol Exam 1st Yr1930 Words   |  8 Pageslectures 1. The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membrane of some animals: a) Enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops b) Enables the animal to remove hydrogen atoms from saturated phospholipids c) Enables the animal to add hydrogen atoms to unsaturated phospholipids d) Makes the membrane less flexible, allowing it to sustain greater pressure from within the cell e) Makes the animal more susceptible to circulatoryRead MoreOsmosis10180 Words   |  41 Pagessemi-permeable membranes and how these processes affect water potential. Students will also calculate water potential of plant cells. EDVOTEK, Inc. †¢ 1-800-EDVOTEK †¢ EVT 080423AM 2 AP Biology EDVO-Kit # 281 Principles Practice of Diffusion and Osmosis Table of Contents Lab # 1 Experiment Components Experiment Requirements Background Information Experiment Procedures Experiment Overview PART A. Diffusion and Dialysis PART B. Osmosis PART C. Water Potential PART DRead MoreIb Bio Hl Chap 1 Cell9873 Words   |  40 Pageswill contribute to the cell theory? I. II. III. A. B. C. D. I only II only I and III only I, II and III [1] Living organisms are composed of cells. All cells come from pre-existing cells by mitosis. Cells are the smallest units of life. 1. C 2. A red blood cell is 8 ÃŽ ¼m in diameter. If drawn 100 times larger than its actual size, what diameter will the drawing be in mm? A. B. C. D. 0.08 mm 0.8 mm 8 mm 80 mm [1] 2. B 3. A cell has cytoplasm, a cell wall, naked DNA and ribosomes

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Explain and critically assess Weber’s conception of power Free Essays

string(49) " enabled by control of distinct fields of power\." Introduction This essay explains and critically assesses Max Weber’s conception of power. In the current study Weber is identified as manifesting both the Hobbesian and Machiavellian proto-realist perspectives: in conceptualising power as fundamentally connected to implicit threat and coercive force. Hence the current study outlines the ways in which Weber’s notions of power hinge largely on the state’s coercive capabilities, examining various forms of social, political, and cultural violence therein. We will write a custom essay sample on Explain and critically assess Weber’s conception of power or any similar topic only for you Order Now Further, the current study draws comparisons between Weber and Marx, looking at the similarities and distinction between the two thinkers: concluding that Weber has a different and more complex understanding of class divisions and power struggles than Marx did. The Many Faces of Power: Legitimate Domination and Willing Subjugation The renowned German sociologist Max Weber came to prominence in the latter half of the nineteenth century, a time in which the politico-economic theories of his precursor Karl Marx were beginning to take hold in Europe; when the â€Å"the spectre of Communism†, as the Communist Manifesto termed it, was â€Å"haunting† the continent (Marx and Engels, 2012, p.33). Moreover, this was a time of great social and political transformation in the West, whereupon the overall character of European polities had been drastically altered by waves of democratic fervour and revolutionary violence. The Revolutions of 1848, for instance, represented the single most concentrated outcrop of political upheaval in the history of European politics. â€Å"The 1848 revolutions†, says Micheline R. Ishay, â€Å"were a watershed. In the most industrialized countries, they broke the liberal-radical republican alliance against legitimist regimes and catalysed the formation of the most radic al human rights perspectives of the century† (2008, p.121). In a very significant sense, said revolutions were a movement against the established power structures of the era. This was a time of great liberal reform and technological change; the social and political apparatuses by which international relations were hitherto understood were being fundamentally transformed – as were theoretical conceptions of power. Although the 1848 Revolutions were mostly checked and curbed within a year of their outbreak, the underlying sentiment and intellectual kindling had not been extinguished. Instead, it fomented in various forms: one of which would lead eventually to the rise of Communism in the early twentieth century. With such conspicuous changes in the makeup of political relations during the nineteenth century, there came concurrent shifts in critical perspectives on how and why such changes occurred. Marx had upheld a perspective that prioritised historical materialism and the fundamental primacy of class struggle as defining political relations. Power, for Marx, concerned the power of those capitalist elites who owned the means of production to exploit the workers whose labour literally made production happen. Marx’s political philosophy was extremely widespread, known even to those who abjured it. For Marx, power also has much to do with class divisions: particularly between those who ow n the means of production, the bourgeoisie, and the workers, or proletariat, who exchange their labour value for wages. Power is thus manifested in the oppression of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie – for whom the social and political structures are geared to preserve the status quo, keeping the workers in a state of social, economic, and political subordination. Marx’s understanding of power, then, is concerned with large scale social and historical forces, particularly as they relate to material and industrial relations in determining power and overall socio-political mechanics. Weber, on the other hand, developed an approach that varied from the Marxian mould, stepping away from the perceived predominance of grand overarching forces in determining social and political relations. As a result, Weber also moved away from Marx’s theory of the strict bourgeoisie/proletariat duality as being the dominant paradigm in political economy. The latter class division was, for Marx, the principle animus for change in capitalist societies. As a consequence, Marx’s conception of power cannot be separated from his overall understanding of the relationship between capitalists and workers. For Weber, socio-economic divisions, and their relations to power, are far more complex than those posited by Marx. Weber understood class distinctions as deriving from more than just an inequality in property relations; instead, Weber posited that it was the unequal distribution of power that resulted in social dividing lines. Power for Weber was, again, more intricate and mu ltifaceted than the kind Marx had proposed. Weber states that power is â€Å"the chance of a man or of a number of men to realize their own will in a communal action even against the resistance of others who are participating in the action† (1968, p.926). Already we can see that Weber’s rendition of power is more abstract and open to interpretation that that of Marx. Further, Weber’s conception of power is similar to modern critical formulations of same; where â€Å"power†, at its most fundamental, â€Å"entails the capacity of one actor to make another actor do something which they would not otherwise do† (Haugaard, 2004, p.304). Most importantly, Weber’s definition is very broad; it allows for application in a number of contexts: social, economic, political, cultural, familial, sexual, interpersonal, and many others. Violence and Coercion: the Centrality of Force in Power Relations Weber’s conception of power is â€Å"inextricably connected to violence and coercion† (Kreisberg, 1992, p.39). Such violence is articulated though various social structures, from the microcosm of the family to the macrocosm of the state. Weber consequently sees â€Å"subjects as being on the receiving end of structures of power† (Whimster and Lash, 2006, p.22). The interactions between these discrete structures of power allow for varying degrees of control over the exercise of violence: where certain individuals or groups have access to or are denied the means to exert their will. For Weber, such means obtain to ideas of legitimacy. Hence, for Weber, the question of power relate to issues about: â€Å"who controls the means of violence; who enjoys a monopoly over economic resources; who controls the legitimate means of political power; and finally who has control over symbolic force† (Turner, 2002, p.215). Social action is thus enabled by control of distin ct fields of power. You read "Explain and critically assess Weber’s conception of power" in category "Essay examples" The more such fields of power can be channelled and consolidated, the more power that obtains. This can be seen very clearly, for example, in the state’s exclusive mandate on legal violence (via armed forces, police, prisons, and so forth). Hence Weber defines the state as â€Å"that agency within society which possesses the monopoly of legitimate violence† (cited in Wanek, 2013, p.12). Accordingly, in Weber’s view, the implicit threat of violence perpetually underwrites the state’s authority. Thus Weber’s position anticipates Mao Zedong’s famous declaration that â€Å"political power grows out of the barrel of a gun† (cited in Wardlaw, 1989, p.43). For Weber, then, coercive force is fundamental to power. Put simply, coercion equates to influence; and influence is power. National political power is therefore structured on implied coercive mechanisms. Hence Weber avers that â€Å"if no social institutions existed that knew the use of violence, then the ‘state’ would be eliminated† (cited in Wagner, 2002, p.120). So conceived, the state is in itself a form of coercive apparatus. Because the state monopolises legal violence, the state is the primary source of power as such. This means access to power is achieved via access to and control over the mechanisms of state. Power is thus manifested in the specific structures on which the social order is based. However, Weber does not believe that power is constituted in coercive force exclusively. Instead, a dynamic of obedience obtains between the ruling class and those ruled: in which the latter group willingly obey their political leaders. Here, Weber’s conce ption of power becomes more complex, delineating ideas of legitimate domination. As Weber perceives it, social conformity, or, as he puts it, â€Å"performance of the command†, may â€Å"have been motivated by the ruled’s own conviction of its propriety, or by his sense of duty, or by fear, or by ‘dull’ custom, or by a desire to obtain some benefit for himself† (1968, p.947). The dominated thus inadvertently cooperate in their domination. Hence we can see that Weber’s conceptualisation of power echoes a Hobbesian perspective, which stresses a central causality between a â€Å"sovereign† power and popular subjugation (Sreedhar, 2010, p.33). Furthermore, state power and interest are related to a conflictual paradigm where self-interest and the will to domination are taken as a given. Weber thus articulates a realist perspective. In addition, Weber’s notion of legitimate domination somewhat chimes with Gramscian hegemony, in that power is constituted and reconstituted in various complex sites, working overall to legitimise the status quo. As a result of this, Weber is distinct from Marx in two very important ways: firstly, he sees power as more abstract, subtle, and complex than Marx does; secondly, he sees power as deriving from many different types of social phenomena – not just class struggle. Following this logic, Weber also applies the same extended complexity to the concept of the origin s of power. Thus, for Weber, power comes from â€Å"three different sources†: â€Å"class (economic power), status (social power), and parties (political power)† (Levine, 2006, p.6). As we can see, then, Weber’s conception of power is based on coercion, force, domination, social structures, and a quasi-hegemonic socio-political structure that promotes and induces willing subjugation in the populace. Weber’s ideas are clearly more reflective of realist political theory than of Marxian idealism, which posits utopic notions of eventual global socialist harmony. This is not to say that Weber wholesale rejects the Marxian position, he does not; rather, he accommodates Marx’s economic arguments in his overall politico-economic model. Further, he expands upon and problematises them. As one would therefore expect, much like his conception of power, Weber’s conception of class is far more nuanced and open to interpretation than that of Marx. For Weber, class pertains to the numerous potential relations that may obtain in a given economic market. In particular, this relates to relationships that arise between an individual, or a group, as concerns a given market. This means that different kinds of economic distinctions will give rise to specific forms of class relation – not just a worker/capitalist polarity. Weber sees class as a social concept that encompasse s numerous iterations within an overall economic purview. Such iterations include professionals, landowners, bankers, financiers, and many others (Hamilton, 1991, p.182). In sum, then, Weber recognises numerous different kinds of class distinctions, each with their own complex sets of power relations. This heterogeneity, in turn, adds complexity to the overall function of power in its specific fields and sites of operation. For Weber, then, power relates to a multiform phenomenon. In treating of the economic dimensions of power, Weber observes that the â€Å"typical chance for a supply of goods, external living conditions, and personal life experiences† are fundamentally determined by â€Å"the amount and kind of power, or lack of such, to dispose of goods or skills† for the sake of â€Å"income in a given economic order† (1968, p.927). Hence Weber observes a clear causal continuum between economic and other kinds of power, where one can come to necessitate (or, at least, facilitate) the other. Where Weber significantly diverges from Marx is in his posited importance of the modes of power that function semi-independently of economic considerations. Specifically, Weber places much emphasis on social status. â€Å"For Weber, status groups are collectives of people with similar lifestyles, and they often overlap with economic class position† (Levine, 2006, p.6). In other words, the socially powerful tend to be located in economically powerful cohorts; at the same time, those without social power tend to be associated with non-economically powerful cohorts. This last assertion can seem very similar to the Marxian view, of the powerful bourgeoisie and non-powerful proletariat. However, the important distinction in Weber’s position is that affinities are drawn more primarily from social, not economic, similarities. Put simply, for Weber, two individuals or groups with similar social lives but different economic statuses could cohere nonetheless; their social alignment supersedes their economic misalignment. The economic distinction is not, for Weber, as integrally conflictual as it is for Marx. This is not to say the Weber does not see class as an important social factor; rather, it to say that, unlike Marx, Weber does not see class struggle as the defining characteristic of history and society. He does not therefore adopt Marx and Engel’s famous assertion that â€Å"all history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle† (2012, p.33). Hence, while Weber sees class as a significant variable in overall quality of life, in dictating one’s opportunities for advancement, for the acquisition of power, he does not identify a corollary primacy in class as catalysing social action and historical change. Friction between social forces – as embodied by class – is not the central source of social tension. This has to do with Weber’s complex and diverse view of class. Weber sees class as heterogeneous and thus not easily reducible to two opposing factions. Compared to Weber, Marx’s views of power and class are over ly reductive. Of the worker, Weber observes, his â€Å"interests† may â€Å"vary widely, according to whether he is constitutionally qualified for the task at hand to a high, to an average, or to a low degree†, meaning, in consequence, that â€Å"societal or even of communal action† from â€Å"a common class situation† is â€Å"by no means a universal phenomenon† (Weber, 1968, p. 929). In other words, the working class cannot simply be lumped together in a bloc group understood as sharing uniform priorities and ambitions. In many senses, that is, power moves beyond material and economic divisions; cannot be attributed to isolated causes and motivations. Conclusion In conclusion, Weber’s conception of power is much in keeping with that proffered by classical realists, where coercive force constitutes the primary hinge around which political power moves. By extension, other manifestations of power both derive legitimacy from, while at the same time reciprocally legitimating, the state: by functioning within its purview. Weber diverges from Marxian reductivism, rejecting the polarity of capitalist/worker class struggle and the primacy of historical materialism. Weber accordingly refutes Marx’s position that common class identity is sufficient to galvanise a homogenous intellectual action; he thus identifies many more lines of division between various social groups. For Weber, power is deeply related to social structures; indeed, power is seen to body forth though social structures, thereby keeping the popular masses in place. Interestingly, the power invested in said structures works, also, to instil a sense of obedience in the publ ic. The public therefore helps to perpetuate the status quo by conforming with, thus legitimating, the state’s exercise of coercive force. References Hamilton, P., 1991. Max Weber, Critical Assessments 2: Volume 2. London: Routledge. Haugaard, P., 2004. Power: A Reader. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Ishay, M. R., 2008. The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalization Era. Berkley, CA: University of California Press. Levine, R. H., 2006. Social Class and Stratification: Classic Statements and Theoretical Debates. Oxford: Rowman Littlefield. Marx, K. Engels, F., 2012. The Communist Manifesto: A Modern Edition. London: Verso. Sreedhar, S., 2010. Hobbes on Resistance: Defying the Leviathan. New York: Cambridge University Press. Turner, B. S., 2002. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. New York: Routledge. Wagner, H., 2002. War and the State: The Theory of International Politics. Michigan: University of Michigan Press. Wanek, A., 2013. The State and Its Enemies in Papua New Guinea. Richmond: Curzon Press. Wardlaw, G., 1989. Political Terrorism: Theory, Tactics and Counter-Measures. New York: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. Weber, M., 1968. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, New York: Bedminster Press. Whimster, S. Lash, S., 2006. Max Weber, Rationality and Modernity. Oxon: Routledge. How to cite Explain and critically assess Weber’s conception of power, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

International Business Entry Strategy

Executive summary Greener is a multinational corporation in the Argentina specializing in timber production. The company intends to enter the North American market to enhance their global trade. This article discusses the international entry strategies that can be employed by the company in order to enhance their chances of success.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on International Business Entry Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the paper discusses the reason for entry in the different market and how management deals with the different cultural practices of the new country. The paper also observes the organizational systems and the controls that the company may adopt to succeed in the new market. Lastly, there is comprehensive discussion on how the company may use the technology adopted from the new market to enhance trading activities in their country of origin. Background of the Study With t he increased competition and saturations in the domestic markets, it has become inevitable for companies to increase their market share by going global. For the companies to ensure that they survive, increase their income and grow, they are forced to exploit and find opportunities in newer environments. However the process of invading, penetrating and the coming up with an internationally acceptable product is a tedious activity. A company entering into a new market faces a variety of challenges since it lacks a lot of the basic requirements that enhance success. With no basic infrastructure such as marketing structure, organizational structure, organizational control and no prior knowledge of the new market the efforts required to penetrate are similar those observed in the early entrants. Pan and Tse (2000) intimated that the entry of a firm into a new market is similar to an early entry strategy in a business. Greeners Company is faced with similar challenges when choosing to ent er the market in CanadaAdvertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Companies choose to enter the global market due to a variety of reasons. Usually the principle reason for seeking new markets is the observation that indicates there is demand in the new market. Besides this fact, companies may choose to enter the global market scene in a move to unsettle its competitors who have entered into such a market recently. This move is usually made in order to disallow the competitor a chance to gain significant merit by trading alone in the new market (Brouthers and Brouthers, 2000; Singh, 1995). It is becoming a practice of corporations to enter new markets in order to learn from the different business culture. Learning process can be induced through partnering with local distributors also referred to as joint ventures or establishing wholly owned ventures. Researchers have found that l earning through partnerships is usually ineffective and tedious means of acquiring information (Aulakh et al., 2000; Kostova and Roth, 2002; Kuada and Sorensen, 2000). Moreover, it does not contribute the process of a company establishing itself as a viable global competitor. Apart from the reasons mentioned above companies may choose to penetrate into the foreign markets in order to gain the advantage of receiving government aid. Some governments offer incentives to companies that export in order to boost countries exports. This incentive may act as a source of drive to companies and lead to them entering international market (Fisman, 2001; Doh, 2000). Companies employ a variety of methods and strategies to enter into new markets. Among the strategies used is a pattern known as ‘increasing commitment’ (Souvik, 2006). This pattern is used by companies to reduce the risk involved in entering a new market. Under this strategy, the company starts by exporting a negligible amount of its products to the target company. Thereafter, the company may employ the services of a local distributor to enhance their knowledge of the market. After gaining sufficient knowledge of the prevailing market conditions the company may start operating a directly controlled branch since it can compete more or less equally with the other businesses in the industry.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on International Business Entry Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Choice of modes of market entry strategy is generally determined by the degree of risk, amount of control required, costs and the amount of returns that a company expects from the new market (Dow, 2000; Davis et al., 2000). Companies that adopt a low profile entry strategy usually minimize their risks. These companies are not burdened with task of establishing offices. Moreover, they have no responsibility of investing in distribution in frastructure, extensive staff recruitment and marketing campaigns. However, such companies will also have very little knowledge on most elements that are in existence in the market where they are operating (Eden and Miller, 2004). Information such as the market share that they command, information on consumer behavior and information on prevailing prices will generally be missing in the database of such companies. On the other hand, companies that choose a high profile entry strategy are faced with the problem of exposing themselves to high intensity of risk (Souvik, 2006). However, these companies have greater control of the information flow. Information on matters pertaining to consumer behavior, prevailing price levels, and the market share will be available for companies that choose high profile market entry strategy (Souvik, 2006). Companies choose their market entry strategy depending on the amount of risk they can handle. Companies that have a low propensity to handle risk wi ll choose the low profile entry strategy while companies with a high propensity to handle risk may decide on either of the two strategies depending on company policies and governance. Risk is one of the factors that determine market entry strategy. However, firms experience risks in various forms (Salas-Porras, 1998). This paper concentrates on the role played by financial and marketing risks in choosing a market entry strategy. Most entities have the sole objective of maximizing profits. Therefore, the financial risk involved while entering a new market is one of the major considerations that companies observe. Low profile entry minimizes the financial risks involved when entering a new market. However, in such a case the marketing risk increases since the parent company has no direct control over the subsidiary.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In order to beat the marketing risks companies have to be able to handle the financial risks presented by the market. Therefore, most companies that are not well equipped to handle the financial risks choose to ignore the market risks when entering via low profile market entry strategy (Hunt, 2000; Scott, 1999). The general assumption among multinational corporations is that market entry strategies that served their purpose previously in one market may be equally good in another market. The strategies used by these corporations are usually for the purpose of enhancing their competitiveness by ensuring that the brand name, their suppliers and managers are well recognized in the market. However, these strategies ignore the fundamental principles of marketing (Schlossberg and Deford, 1992). Each market is unique on its own way according to the principles of marketing. Therefore, to penetrate a new market, companies need to study the uniqueness of the market. This will enable the compan ies to identify the requirements that will lead to success. Simple economics require companies to adapt their commodities to meet the market demands and conditions. Multinational corporations that are more experienced in penetrating new markets devise means of adapting to the local market conditions. This achieved by coming up with new brands, new packaging methods, and new distribution channels (Souvik, 2006). Brief Background of the Company Greeners Limited is a multinational company specialized in logging. The company is located in Mexico City and operates several wholly owned subsidiary companies in Malaysia. The main activities in the subsidiary sawmills involves converting raw tree logs into high quality building grade timber to sell in the Malaysian market. Greeeners Limited releases timber products that are standardized in order to meet the market demands of the countries it is operating. Each country has its own standards. Greeners Producer Limited has been operational for the last fifteen years with the subsidiary companies in Malaysia being operational for the last five years. Throughout this time, the company has been working effectively and efficiently by ensuring it incurred minimum operational costs to achieve maximum output. To support the general activities in the company, Greeners has adopted a general organizational structure that is composed of a general manager who controls all the operations of the company including the subsidiaries. Under the general managers are the junior managers who head the subsidiary companies within Mexico and those outside Mexico. All the subsidiary companies are divided into four major departments: logging, production, packaging, and shipping and maintenance. Most of the timber products from the company are sold within the market of production and aggressive marketing is unnecessary due to the small difference in timber products. The company’s major objective is to become a leading producer of timber prod ucts in the world. Moreover, the company intends to maximize its profits by minimizing operational costs and achieving maximum outputs. Therefore, the directors and managers of the company are usually under pressure to exploit opportunities in new markets. With this in mind, the company is looking for options in different countries where it can expand its market and global power. Market entry strategies and risks involved For market entry strategy, Greeners Limited may choose either of the modes of entry (low profile entry or high profile entry). The low profile entry may be used to avoid financial risks. Since Greener Producer Limited originates from a Latin American country, the cultural business practices are different from those that operate in Canada (Dominguez and Brenes, 1997). A direct entry into the market may be risky for the company. Therefore, to achieve their goal of getting a fully owned subsidiary without risking much of their finances the company may start by using f oreign direct investment in a saw mill in Canada (Grosse and Trevino, 1996). Once it is able to grasp sufficient knowledge of the Canadian industry, then the directors can move to fully own the business entity. Another method of entry into the Canadian market may be by the high profile direct entry. The company can choose to invest fully into the market in Canada and experience the market forces first hand. However, entering the market via high profile entry requires a lot of commitment from the parent company. This is because the company may face a variety of challenges. Example of challenges facing a multinational that tries to penetrate a new market includes: The challenge of choosing a location Cultural challenge Organizational structure Technological challenges. Therefore, a multinational that chooses to use high profile entry strategy has to consider these challenges in order to survive the market. Factors Leading To Choice of Country Recently the management of Greeners Limi ted has detected an opportunity to increase their global market share by penetrating the Canadian market. The major reason for the company’s decision behind investing in Canada is the availability of timber and ready market for timber products. The Canadian economy depends on its forests (Dufour, n.d.). The forest covers an approximate of 418 million hectares that has been approximated to be 45% of the total area of Canada (Dufour, n.d.). This is approximately 10% of the world’s forest cover. The forest products earning in Canada exceed the amount of earnings generated by agriculture, automotive, and fishing industry. Canada’s lumber industry has experienced stability in the prices and production after the world’s recession (John, 2008). Despite the fact that the lumber prices are still a bit lower than those in the previous prices before recession, these prices represent a significant increase in prices. Therefore, the timber companies in Canada and the rest of the world are bullish about the prices of timber. These factors combined with the fact that the Canadian lumber sectors have undergone restructuring presents an attractive prospect for Greeners Limited to enter into the market. However, while entering a new market a company requires a convenient location to set up their subsidiary. The best choice of a location is dependent on various factors. The most important factor to consider is the nature of business. Business entities should ask themselves questions such as What are the company objectives? What are the market demands? Is labor available at the location? is power/energy available? With these questions in mind then the business entity is ready to choose a location. The best location for a timber processing company is near the source of raw material. This is because timber is a bulky product and transporting it over long distances may lead to incurring a lot of costs. When considering the second question about the mark et demands the company should consider the needs of their customers. In some industries the customers come to the business to collect the products while in some businesses it is the responsibility of the producers to supply the goods. In cases where the customers come to the producer then the location of the producers can be located where they can minimize their costs. Availability of labor is also an important factor in determining the location of a business. A business entity is usually located in areas where the company can obtain labor cheaply and conveniently. The prime objective of the organization being to minimize costs while having maximum output, the company should find a location that suits their goal. The location should be easily accessible and close enough the source of timber to minimize transport costs. A good location to locate a mill in Canada would be Highland East Ontario. This location is ideal since it was once a mining community (HECP, 2011). This means that t he area has enough labor to enhance the process of logging. Moreover, a highway passes close to the area (HECP, 2011). This means that the means of transporting the logs from and to the market is available. The area is also close to the area where the logging activities take place is therefore an ideal place where costs of logging process and labor can be minimized. Cultural challenges Canada and Mexico are two countries with different business cultural practices. According to Doh et al. (2003), the Latin American business culture is affected by corruption. This is unlike the Canadian market where corruption may be considered negligible. Therefore, when management of Greeners Limited attempts to enter the Canadian market, the differences in business cultural practices may be a major barrier. Whereas in Mexico and Malaysia corruption is high and multinational exploit the resources without consideration of the people (Adeola, 2001; Chandler and Werther, 2006). A good example is the ca se of Malaysia Penan tribe of Borneo rainforest. This tribe faces major social challenges due to invasion of the forest by the government and multinational corporations. Corruption by the government and the multinationals is rampant and affects the indigenous people. Taking a multinational companies operating under these conditions, like Greeners Limited, and incorporating them into the Canadian market, they tend to find operations difficult. Another cultural barrier that Greeners limited may experience is the difference in language. While Canada is an English speaking country, Mexicans speak Spanish. Therefore, the difference in language may pose a challenge to the parent company. Therefore, in order for Greeners Limited to penetrate the Canadian market, the company needs to overcome these cultural barriers. The best way of overcoming the issues on corruption is by strictly adhering to the rules set by the Canadian government and regulations set by the forest authorities in Canada. On issues to do with language barrier, the company may use the force from within Canada and avoid outsourcing. Moreover, their general managers can undergo training to ensure that they are well versed in English language. This enhances the process of communication between the parent company in Mexico and the subsidiary in Canada. Organizational Structure and technological Challenges When a multinational company enters into a new market, the organizational structure and control structures are bound to change (PRS, 2004). A company in a new market is faced by new challenges that require new ways to manage them. Experienced multinational corporations employ a small degree of change to their structure in order to adapt to the new markets. Canadian lumbering industry, for instance, has adopted new structure to enhance the demand of their timber product. Unlike in Malaysia and Mexico where the marketing is not needed Canada has high competition among companies (Dufour, n.d.). Their timbe r products are differentiated by the packaging methods and the technology employed in processing. The higher the quality of technology used the higher the quality of the timber products. Therefore, for Greeners Limited to maintain the quality of production and the degree of competitiveness, it must adopt the technology used by the companies in Canada. These technologies can be exported back to the other subsidiaries and the parent company to ensure that the company can meet its objective of becoming a world leader in timber production. Moreover, Greeners Limited needs to change its organizational structure and incorporate a marketing department that is highly efficient. This would ensure that the company competes with the other companies in Canadian market. Apart from these two factors, Greeners Limited is required to incorporate new control systems in their company structure. Controls ensure that the company assets are safeguarded. Moreover, controls ensure that the company can kee p track of its labor force. Lastly, controls ensure that employee adherence to management policies. Choosing the time of entry Another challenge that faces Greeners Limited is the time of entry. Choices on time of entry into a market are affected by several key factors (Rodger, 1999). To analyze the most suitable time of entry, directors of Greeners may use the PESTLE model. This model will enable the company to comprehensively determine a precise time to entry enter into the Canadian market. This model involves six important factors that may interfere with the time of entry, analyses them and provides the means of determining the time of entry. To choose a comprehensive time of entry, Greeners Limited must gain knowledge on the political situation in Canada. Factors, such as the foreign policy between Canada and other countries, are usually determined on a political basis. Moreover, the degree of government intervention in the markets may also be influenced by politics. Therefore, the most suitable time for Greeners to enter the Canadian market would be during the time when the political environment were calm and could accommodate a new entrant from different markets and countries. Since Canada is highly democratic and the country is not at war, Greeners may enter the market at any time. Economic factors are also important in determining Greeners’ time of entry. Factors, such as the market interest rates, inflation and rates of exchange, may influence the time of entry as well. It is advisable for Greeners Limited to consider these factors before the company starts trading in a new market. Higher interest rates reduce the level of investment; inflation, on the other hand, induces higher wages, thus the rate of exchange may affect the levels of profits (Rodger, 1999). Taking these into account, Greeners will be able to enter the market at a time when those factors do not greatly interfere with the company’s profits. Social factors include tribes and social groups that segregate humans interfere with the market trends (Rodger, 1999). It is important to observe the social factors before entering a new business environment. This is because social structure determines the buying habit of consumers. To maximize their profits, Greeners is supposed to enter the market after doing a thorough research on the society it is going to run business with. Therefore, Greeners Limited may only ether the market at a time when the company has sufficient knowledge on the society it is going to trade with. To choose a suitable time of entry, Greeners is supposed to observe the technology advances in Canada. Thereafter, it must incorporate this technology into its production process. This will enable the company to compete with the other sawmills in Canada. Therefore, Greeners Limited can only enter into the Canadian market after adopting all the necessary technology. In the lumbering business, environmental factors play a major role in determin ing the time of entry. This is because the growth of trees is highly dependent on the climate, and weather conditions. Moreover, the ease of timber is dependent on the weather. Therefore, in case Greeners Limited wants to enter the Canadian market, the company should avoid the winter season. Legal reasons also play a major role in determining the time of market entry. A company may begin trading only if it acquires all the legal documents that allow it to trade in a given market. Similarly, Greeners must obtain all the legal documents required in Canada to begin trading. Therefore, after taking all these factors into consideration, Greener Limited can decide to enter the market in a period of one year after scouting the market and ensuring it fulfills all the requirements that will enable the company to trade. Recommendations As discussed above, Greeners Limited is required to choose a location that will meet its objective of cutting costs. Preferably, Highland East Ontario, this is because this region posses all the characteristics of a good location for setting a business. On the case of cultural issues, the company should find a means of adhering to the laws and business culture in the Canadian markets. Adoption of technology to enhance the activities of the multinational is a recommendation to management of Greeners Limited. In addition to this, the company ought to adopt new organizational structures and new control systems to enhance its activities in the global market. Conclusion The strategy used by a multinational corporation in entering a new market is crucial for its survival in the market. High profile entrants tend to expose their companies to financial risks while low profile entrants expose their companies to market risk. Therefore, before entering new markets multinational ought to consider the cultural barriers, technological barriers, and environmental barriers such as location. References Adeola, F O 2001, ‘Environmental injustice and human rights abuse: the states, mncs, and repression of minority groups in the world system’ Human Ecology Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 39-55 Aulakh, P S, Kotabe, M and Teegen, H 2000, ‘Export strategies and performance of firms from emerging economies: evidence from Brazil, Chile and Mexico’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp. 342-61. Brouthers, K D and Brouthers, L 2000, ‘Acquisition of Green-Field Start-Up? Institutional Cultural and Transaction Cost Influences’, Strategic management journal, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 89-97 Chandler, D A and Werther, W B 2006, Strategic corporate social re ­sponsibility. Sage: New York Davis, P S, Desai, A and Francis, J 2000, ‘Mode of international entry: An isomorphism perspective’, Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 31, No.2, pp. 239–258. Doh, J P 2000, ‘Entrepreneurial Privatization Strategies: Order of Entry and Local Partner Collaboration as Sources of Competiti ve Advantage’, Academic Management Review. Vol.253, pp. 551–571. Doh, J P, Rodriguez, K. Uhlenbruck, J. Collins, and L. Eden M 2003, ‘Coping with corruption in foreign markets’, Academic Management Executive, Vol. 17, No.3, pp. 114–127. Dominguez, L V and Brenes, W 1997, ‘The internationalization of Latin American enterprises and market liberalization in the Americas: a vital linkage’, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 38, No.1, pp.3-16 Dow, D 2000, ‘A Note on Psychological Distance and Export Market Selection’, Journal of International Marketing, Vol.8, No.1, 51-64. Dufour, D n.d. ‘The Lumber Industry: Crucial Contribution to Canada’s Prosperity’. Manufacturing, Construction and Energy Division, pp. 1-7 Eden, L, and Miller, S 2004, ‘Distance matters: Liability of foreignness, institutional distance and ownership strategy. M. A. Hitt, J. L. C. Cheng, eds’, The Evolving Theory of the Multina tional Firm. Advances in International Management, Vol.16, pp. 187–221. Fisman, R 2001, ‘Estimating the value of political connections’, America Economic Review, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 1095–1102. Grosse, R and Trevino, L 1996, ‘Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Analysis by Country of Origin’, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.27 No. 1, pp. 139-55. HECP 2011 Census of population: Statistics Canada. Viewed on -pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=EGeo1=CSDCode1=3546005Geo2=CDCode2=3546Data=CountSearchText=HighlandsSearchType=ContainsSearchPR=01B1=AllCustom=TABID=1 Hunt, S H 2000, A General Theory of Competition: Resources, Competences, Productivity, Economic Growth. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA John, C 2008, ‘Contemporary practice of United States relating to international law: United States and Canada arbitrate a softwood lumber dispute in London court of arbitrationâ €™. Journal of international law, pp.102-109 Kostova, T and Roth, K 2002, ‘Adoption of an organizational practice by subsidiaries of multinational corporations: Institutional and relational effects’, Academic Management Journal, Vol.45, No.1, pp. 215–233. Kuada, J and Sorensen, O 2000, Internationalization of Companies from Developing Countries, International Business Press: Binghamton, NY Pan, Y and Tse, D 2000, ‘The Hierarchical Model of Market Entry Modes’, Journal of International Business Studies Vol.31, No.4, pp. 535-554. Political Risk Services (PRS) 2004, International Country Risk Guide: A Business Guide to Political Risk. The PRS Group, Inc: East Syracuse, NJ Preston, L. 2011, ‘Patience Is a Virtue for Canada’s Lumber Sector’, Observation Td Economics, pp. 416 -983 Rogers, J 1999 Facilitating Groups Management Futures Ltd: London. Salas-Porras, A 1998, ‘The Strategies Pursued by Mexican Firms in Their Efforts t o Become Global Players’, CEPAL Review, Vol.65, pp.133-53. Schlossberg, H and Deford, G 1992, ‘Blast Media, Ponder Society’s Priorities’, Marketing News, Vol.26, No. 12, 6-7. Scott, F M 1999, ‘Entry Decisions in the Generic Pharmaceutical Industry’, Rand Journal of Economics, (30), 421-40. 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Friday, March 20, 2020

Police Brutality Essay Example

Police Brutality Essay Example Police Brutality Essay Police Brutality Essay Over the past five centuries, black people have endured violence in many different ways. Today, police officers use deadly, excessive force that leads to inexcusable assaults, beatings and shootings. This demonstrates the governmentÐ ¢s role in initiating and prolonging racial suppression and provides the explanation for police brutality to become a federal crime(Black Radical Congress, 3). In history, racist violence, police brutality, has been used to suppress the racial blacks and to preserve power and privileges for the white race. This was done for five primary purposes. First, it has forced black people into slavery or low wage situations. Secondly, to steal land and other resources. A 3-rd was to maintain social control. A fourth purpose was to eliminate conflict in politics, social life, and employment. Lastly, the fifth purpose was to unite white people across the ethnic, class, and gender boundaries. However, after the Emancipation, lynching became a prominent form of violence used against the blacks. The use of lynching was a means of controlling and putting fear into the blacks, making them afraid to go against anything the white man said or authorized. In the mid 1900’s, race riots and lawful executions began to replace the practice of lynching. This became the new method of social control and white supremacy could be controlled through racial discrimination. Harassment and discrimination are two other forms of violence, they have been practiced for many centuries and are still being practiced today as a means of control. The practice of police brutality has a strong affect on a main segment of the American population. Those affected are minorities and the elderly causing them to have strong hatred towards the whites in America. Police Brutality is abuse by law enforcement, where a police officer feels that because he/ she has a badge and a gun therefore it puts them above the law and they can use unnecessary force against another individual. Police Brutality is not a new issue; it has become more focused on recently due to some cases that have occurred in the past few years that have been highly publicized. The abuse used by police officers is a serious offense that violates a persons human and civil rights. These violations are seen nationwide to the inority community and are committed by various police officers that fail to receive punishment for their action. The Civil Rights Act â€Å"provides protection to those persons wronged by the misuse of power, possessed by the virtue of state law and made [it] possible only because the wrongdoer is clothed with the authority of state law†. There is a violation of the fourth amendment when innocent people become victims of police brutality. Many minoritie s are stopped because they are driving a luxury car. They are assumed to be either drug dealers or a criminal. The protection of the fourth amendment, however, is shrinking; it can only be used with the presence of a warrant (Meeks, 9). The presence of the warrant keeps from unlawful police searches and abuse to occur. Racial profiling is the more common form of police brutality. This is the most frequent violation of the fourth amendment. It is the tactic of stopping someone because of his or her skin color. Racial profiling mainly targets young Black and Latino men and is believed to be a justified form of law enforcement. In other words, it is a form of legal prejudice that occurs daily nationwide. Although, there are many questionable areas in racial profiling that cannot be avoided nor proven. First, it is difficult to prove, in a majority of cases there is no evidence and the police officers can claim the stop to be a routine traffic stop. An example of this is when a black person is pulled over for a traffic violation the type of vehicle is first determined and then their skin color. A majority of Blacks and Latinos drive either flashy or historical vehicles, this determines the ethnicityof the driver. Harassment takes place and no one can prove this but the victim and the police officer. Secondly, the courts have to acknowledge that racial profiling occurred and in most cases this is hard to prove. There are also other forms of racial profiling. In many professions, this type of profiling is used as a form as security. Taxi drivers and security personnel engage in profiling when they feel fearful or threatened. Taxi drivers use this type of judgment when refusing to pick up a customer at night and security guards use it to find suspects while working. Racial profiling is considered to be a profile used by police officers to identify suspicious criminal or violators of the law. A typical profile used is the CARD system. CARD is an acronym for class, age, race, and dress. This system is used to fit individuals into categories for means of identification. The problem with the CARD system is that many minorities fall into this category. This makes them primary targets and poses a problem for some of the white people that also fall into this category. Nevertheless, there are a few positive sides to profiling. For one, it can be considered to be a survival skill, allowing one to see if people are doing justice. Secondly, it puts people on an innate level. Profiling shows signs about people and certain criteria. Lastly, it is not considered to be racism. Police officers who use profiling use it as a tool because they think that they are color blind in certain situations. Police brutality also occurs in prisons where the prisoners are mistreated because it becomes a simple case of authority. Humans have their freedom to express their rights and police brutality violates their human rights. The main targets of police brutality are two third African American or Latino and the majority of the time the officer is white. There are five stages through which force can progress and lead to brutality: Verbal persuasion, unarmed physical force, force using non-lethal weapons, force using impact weapons and deadly force. Enforcement personnel should use the deadly force stage only when an officer’s life or another person’s life is in danger. By having the deadly force stage, the law permits someone to commit a murder, and justifies its use. Many law enforcement officials appear to have a tough exterior towards crime, but are very sensitive to crime on the inside. Police officers build up negative feelings towards certain races, sexes, or religions. Officers tend to get the impression that if one or a few people treat them with disrespect, than other people of that same sex, race, or religion will treat the officer in the same way. Another cause of police brutality and misconduct is the amount of stress that is put upon the law enforcement official. Law enforcement officials who are accused of police brutality are required to attend a civil court hearing with a judge and a jury present. Most of the time the jury will find the officers not guilty, or guilty of a lesser rime. This is true in the case of the officer who used an illegal chokehold on Anthony Bees, a twenty eight-year old Puerto Rican, after Baez’s football hit the patrol car. Baez was killed due to the force of the chokehold, but the officer was found not guilty. However, due to racism and society, the demand of tough treatment towards criminals will encourage police officer s to remain violent. The extent of police brutality can be improved through the training of police officers and racially integrated departments resulting in the decline of police violence. Many ways to correct police misconduct have evolved. Such corrections include sufficient training, recruitment, and integration. In recruitment, tighter screening and background checks could be used to avoid violence and racism to enter into the police force. By means of integration, the presence of more minorities can help to dissolve the hatred towards minorities in the society, giving affirmative action an opportunity to take precedence. Police officers should also be required to go to a class that re-teaches them how to act appropriate in an arrest and other situations. A majority of these police officers also feel as though they did not commit a wrongdoing and that they are innocent. One of the ways to curb police brutality is to implement new laws, to punish the wrong doers that may bring about the decrease in police brutality. Today, officers know that there are laws dealing with etiquette during an arrest, but many do not attempt to apply what they know, and let physical strength, and force overcomes them. Also, severe or reasonable consequences should be given to police officers who participate in police brutality. Suspension, verbal reprimands, an investigation, anger management classes, or the loss of their jobs are some consequences that should be given to violating officers. Although there has been some progress and education, training and integration with of the law enforcement population, the are still incidents of racial profiling and police brutality. With continued efforts and corrections of racial injustices, this type of abuse and punishment will lessen when the law moves more towards the justice for minorities.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Saint Catherine of Alexandria Known for:Â  legends vary, but usually known for her torture on a wheel before her martyrdom Dates: 290s C.E. () - 305 C.E. (?)Feast Day: November 25 Also known as: Katherine of Alexandria, Saint Catherine of the Wheel, Great Martyr Catherine How We Know About Saint Catherine of Alexandria Eusebius writes about 320 of a Christian woman of Alexandria who refused the advances of the Roman emperor and, as a consequence of her refusal, lost her estates and was banished. Popular stories add more details, some of which conflict with each other. The following summarizes the life of Saint Catherine of Alexandria depicted in those popular stories. The story is found in the Golden Legend and also in an Acts of her life. Legendary Life of Saint Catherine of Alexandria Catherine of Alexandria is said to have been born the daughter of Cestus, wealthy man of Alexandria in Egypt. She was noted for her wealth, intelligence, and beauty. She is said to have learned philosophy, languages, science (natural philosophy), and medicine. She refused to marry, not finding any man who was her equal. Either her mother or her reading introduced her to the Christian religion. She is said to have challenged the emperor (Maximinus or Maximian or his son Maxentius are variously thought to be the anti-Christian emperor in question) when she was eighteen years old. The emperor brought in some 50 philosophers to dispute her Christian ideas but she convinced them all to convert, at which point the emperor burned them all to death. She then is said to have converted others, even the empress. Then the emperor is said to have tried to make her his empress or mistress, and when she refused, she was tortured on a spiked wheel, which miraculously fell apart and the parts killed some who were watching the torture. Finally, the emperor had her beheaded. Veneration of Saint Catherine of Alexandria In about the 8th or 9th century, a story became popular that after she died, St. Catherines body was carried by angels to Mount Sinai, and that the monastery there was built in honor of this event. In medieval times, St. Catherine of Alexandria was among the most popular saints, and was often depicted in statues, paintings, and other art in churches and chapels. She has been included as one of the fourteen holy helpers, or important saints to pray to for healing. She was considered a protector of young girls and especially of those who were students or in cloisters. She was also considered the patroness of wheelwrights, mechanics, millers, philosophers, scribes, and preachers. St. Catherine was especially popular in France, and she was one of the saints whose voices were heard by Joan of Arc. The popularity of the name Catherine (in various spellings) is likely based on Catherine of Alexandrias popularity. In Orthodox Churches Catherine of Alexandria is known as a great martyr. There is no real historical evidence for the details of St. Catherines life story outside these legends. Writings of visitors to the Mt. Sinai monastery do not mention her legend for the first few centuries after her death. The feast day of Catherine of Alexandria, November 25, was removed from the Roman Catholic Churchs official calendar of saints in 1969, and restored as an optional memorial on that calendar in 2002.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Theatre Performance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Theatre Performance - Essay Example The first difficulty I faced preparing the monologue was to learn the words by heart. In order to perform well, I needed to know it perfectly not to forget it even when I would be nervous or lost. I had to force myself to learn the text and it took some time to make sure that I would not fail. There were some lines that were the most difficult for me. I missed them many times when I practiced alone and with a friend and it made me frustrated because my performance was awful when I stopped and tried to recollect everything. I turned out that learning the text was not the most difficult part of my preparations. I had to perform; accordingly, I needed to focus on emotions, mimics and actions related to my role. Staging was hard because I had to keep everything natural but persuasive. It was complicated to find the right balance between these two options. I did not want to look indifferent on the stage; at the same time, I was afraid that I would exaggerate everything and spoil my role. Moreover, I had to do everything is a set time frame. Performance contained a sequence of actions that had to happen in the right time and place. I could not improvise or change anything. It was stressful at first, but it added a better organization to my performance. Staging was particularly hard because I performed the role of a man and I had to control my voice all the time not to sound feminine. This required the control of every word I said. Even all exclamations had to be more male. The switch from Harry to Handy Baker was not easy and I spent much time training it. I had a hoarse voice because my vocal cords were not used to such a pressure. Due to this fact I had to make pauses and relax to minimise the effect of my role on my ordinary voice. The issue of confidence came next. I was very nervous when I thought about public performance of the monologue.